Kamis, 13 Desember 2012

Pengertian Psikotropika



Psikotropika adalah suatu obat yang termasuk dalam golongan Narkoba (Narkotika dan Obat-obat berbahaya). Psikotropika adalah zat atau obat yang dapat menurunkan aktivitas otak atau merangsang susunan syaraf pusat dan menimbulkan kelainan perilaku, disertai dengan timbulnya halusinasi (mengkhayal), ilusi, gangguan cara berpikir, perubahan alam perasaan dan dapat menyebabkan ketergantungan serta mempunyai efek stimulasi (merangsang) bagi para pemakainya

Efek dari Psikotropika

Zat atau obat psikotropika ini dapat menurunkan aktivitas otak atau merangsang susunan syaraf pusat dan menimbulkan kelainan perilaku, disertai dengan timbulnyahalusinasi  (mengkhayal),ilusi, gangguan cara berpikir, perubahan alam perasaan dan dapatmenyebabkan ketergantungan serta mempunyai efek stimulasi(merangsang) bagi para pemakainya. Pemakaian Psikotropika yang berlangsung lama tanpa pengawasan dan pembatasan pejabatkesehatan dapat menimbulkan dampak yang lebih buruk, tidak saja menyebabkanketergantungan bahkan juga menimbulkan berbagai macam penyakit serta kelainan fisik maupun psikis si pemakai, tidak jarang bahkan menimbulkan kematian



Jenis Psikotropika

Psikotropika dibedakan menjadi 4 golongan, yaitu:
1.      Psikotropika yang tidak digunakan untuk tujuan pengobatan dengan potensiketergantungan yang sangat kuat, contoh: LSD, MDMA dan mascalin.
2.      Psikotropika yang berkhasiat terapi tetapi dapat menimbulkan ketergantungan sepertiamfetamin.
3.      Psikotropika dari kelompok hipnotik sedatif, seperti barbiturat. Efek ketergantungannyasedang.
4.      Psikotropika yang efek ketergantungannya ringan, seperti diazepam, nitrazepam.
Jenis–jenis narkoba yang termasuk Psikotropika:
-Ekstasi -Sabu-sabu

Golongan Psikotropika

Psikotropika yang mempunyai potensi mengakibatkan sindroma ketergantungan digolongkan menjadi4 golongan, yaitu:
1.      Psikotropika golongan I : yaitu psikotropika yang tidak digunakan untuk tujuan pengobatan dengan potensi ketergantungan yang sangat kuat
2.      Psikotropika golongan II : yaitu psikotropika yang berkhasiat terapi tetapi dapat menimbulkan ketergantungan.
3.      Psikotropika golongan III : yaitu psikotropika dengan efek ketergantungannya sedang dari kelompok hipnotik sedatif.
4.      Psikotropika golongan IV : yaitu psikotropika yang efek ketergantungannya ringan.
Berdasarkan Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa tentang pemberantasan peredaran narkotika dan psikotropika, tahun 1988 tersebut maka psikotropika dapat digolongkan sebagai berikut : (didahului dengan nama International dan nama kimia diletakkan dalam tanda kurung)

Psikotropika golongan I
§  Broloamfetamine atau DOB ((±)-4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Cathinone ((x)-(S)-2-aminopropiophenone)
§  DET (3-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]indole)
§  DMA ( (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine )
§  DMHP ( 3-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H- dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-olo )
§  DMT ( 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]indole)
§  DOET ( (±)-4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-phenethylamine)
§  Eticyclidine – PCE ( N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine )
§  Etrytamine ( 3-(2-aminobutyl)indole )
§  Lysergide – LSD, LSD-25 (9,10-didehydro-N,N-diethyl-6-methylergoline-8beta-carboxamide)
§  MDMA ((±)-N,alpha-dimethyl-3,4-(methylene-dioxy)phenethylamine)
§  Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine)
§  Methcathinone ( 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one )
§  4-methylaminorex ( (±)-cis-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline )
§  MMDA (2-methoxy-alpha-methyl-4,5-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine)
§  N-ethyl MDA ((±)-N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine)
§  N-hydroxy MDA ((±)-N-[alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethyl]hydroxylamine)
§  Parahexyl (3-hexyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol)
§  PMA (p-methoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Psilocine, psilotsin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] indol-4-ol)
§  Psilocybine (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate)
§  Rolicyclidine – PHP,PCPY ( 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine )
§  STP, DOM (2,5-dimethoxy-alpha,4-dimethylphenethylamine)
§  Tenamfetamine – MDA (alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine)
§  Tenocyclidine – TCP (1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine)
§  Tetrahydrocannabinol
§  TMA ((±)-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine)

Psikotropika golongan II
§  Amphetamine ((±)-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Dexamphetamine ((+)-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Fenetylline (7-[2-[(alpha-methylphenethyl)amino] ethyl]theophylline)
§  Levamphetamine ((x)-(R)-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Levomethampheta-mine ((x)-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
§  Mecloqualone (3-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-4(3H)- quinazolinone)
§  Methamphetamine ((+)-(S)-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
§  Methamphetamineracemate ((±)-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
§  Methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone)
§  Methylphenidate (Methyl alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate)
§  Phencyclidine – PCP (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine)
§  Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine)
§  Secobarbital (5-allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid)
§  Dronabinol atau delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol ((6aR,10aR)-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl pentyl-6H- dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol)
§  Zipeprol (alpha-(alpha-methoxybenzyl)-4-(beta-methoxyphenethyl)-1-piperazineethanol)

Psikotropika golongan III
§  Amobarbital (5-ethyl-5-isopentylbarbituric acid)
§  Buprenorphine (2l-cyclopropyl-7-alpha-[(S)-1-hydroxy-1,2,2-trimethylpropyl]-6,14- endo-ethano 6,7,8,14-tetrahydrooripavine)
§  Butalbital (5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid)
§  Cathine / norpseudo-ephedrine ((+)-(R)-alpha-[(R)-1-aminoethyl]benzyl alcohol)
§  Cyclobarbital (5-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-ethylbarbituric acid)
§  Flunitrazepam (5-(o-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Glutethimide (2-ethyl-2-phenylglutarimide)
§  Pentazocine ((2R*,6R*,11R*)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimethyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-8-ol)
§  Pentobarbital (5-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid)

Psikotropika golongan IV
§  Allobarbital (5,5-diallylbarbituric acid)
§  Alprazolam (8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine)
§  Amfepramone (diethylpropion 2-(diethylamino)propiophenone)
§  Aminorex (2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline)
§  Barbital (5,5-diethylbarbituric acid)
§  Benzfetamine (N-benzyl-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine)
§  Bromazepam (7-bromo-1,3-dihydro-5-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Butobarbital (5-butyl-5-ethylbarbituric acid)
§  Brotizolam (2-bromo-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f]-s-triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]diazepine)
§  Camazepam (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4 benzodiazepin-2-one dimethylcarbamate (ester))
§  Chlordiazepoxide (7-chloro-2-(methylamino)-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide)
§  Clobazam (7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4(3H,5H)-dione)
§  Clonazepam (5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Clorazepate (7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid)
§  Clotiazepam (5-(o-chlorophenyl)-7-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2H-thieno [2,3-e] -1,4-diazepin-2-one)
§  Cloxazolam (10-chloro-11b-(o-chlorophenyl)-2,3,7,11b-tetrahydro-oxazolo- [3,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepin-6(5H)-one)
§  Delorazepam (7-chloro-5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Diazepam (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Estazolam (8-chloro-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine)
§  Ethchlorvynol (1-chloro-3-ethyl-1-penten-4-yn-3-ol)
§  Ethinamate (1-ethynylcyclohexanolcarbamate)
§  Ethyl loflazepate (ethyl 7-chloro-5-(o-fluorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate)
§  Etil Amfetamine / N-ethylampetamine (N-ethyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine)
§  Fencamfamin (N-ethyl-3-phenyl-2-norborananamine)
§  Fenproporex ((±)-3-[(alpha-methylphenylethyl)amino]propionitrile)
§  Fludiazepam (7-chloro-5-(o-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Flurazepam (7-chloro-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-5-(o-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Halazepam (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
§  Haloxazolam (10-bromo-11b-(o-fluorophenyl)-2,3,7,11b-tetrahydrooxazolo [3,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepin-6(5H)-one)
§  Ketazolam (11-chloro-8,12b-dihydro-2,8-dimethyl-12b-phenyl-4H-[1,3]oxazino[3,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepine-4,7(6H)-dione)
§  Lefetamine – SPA ((x)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine)


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